Kisan ƙare dangin Ruwanda

Baya ga kisan kare dangin Bosnia, na Ruwanda shi ne na ƙarshe da duniya ta taba fuskanta.

Kisan ƙare dangin Ruwanda

A shekarar 1948 Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya (MDD) ta  ayyanar da yarjejeniyar  kare da hukunta laifukan kisan kare dangi da zummar kauda dukkanin laifukan da suka haɗa da yunkurin ƙarar ko kauda wasu ƙabilu, mabiya wasu addinai ko ma wasu jinsi daga doron ƙasa. Yarjejeniyar dai ta ƙunshi dakatar da duk wata yunƙurin kauda wasu al'umma, mamayesu, zuba musu guba, canja musu tsarin rayuwa, hana musu haifafa da kuma miƙa yaransu zuwa ga wata al'umma.

 

A cikin wannan shirin namu mun sake kasancewa tare da ferfesa Kudret BÜLBÜL shugaban kulliyar siyasa a jami'ar Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi.

 

Kafin wata ƙasida da wani Bayahude ɗan ƙasar Poland mai suna Raphael Lemki ya rubuta a shekarar 1944 inda ya yi ƙoƙarin bayyana yadda masu ra'ayin Nazi a Jamus ke ƙoƙarin kauda Yahudawa daga doron ƙasa ba'a san kalmar kisan kare dangi watau genocide ba. Lemki ya haɗa kalmar Girka “geno” dake nufin wariyar launin fata da kuma kalmar Latin “cide” dake nufin kisa ya fitar da kalmar “genocide” dake nufin kisan kiyashi. Duk dai wacannan kalmar ta bayyana sanadiyar wasu abubuwan ƙi da ƙasashen yamma ke yiwa bil'adama, sau da yawa ana amfani da kalmar ne domin nuni ga ɗabi'o'in ƙasashen da ba na yammaci ba.

A wannan makon ina son in yi sharhi ne akan wata kwamitin da aka kafa a Faransa akan kisan kiyashin ƙasar Ruwanda.

 

Baya ga kisan kare dangin Bosnia, na Ruwanda shi ne na ƙarshe da duniya ta taba fuskanta.

 

Tarihi ya nuna cewa Beljiyom kaman sauran kawayenta ta gudanar da mulkin mallaka ta hanyar raba kawonan al'uma domin mulkar ƙasashen data mamaya.

 

Tarihin ƙasar Ruwanda baida wani dogon banbanci dana sauran ƙasashen da suka kasance ƙarƙashin mulkin mallaka. Jamus dai ce ƙasar farko da ta fara mulkin mallaka a ƙasar. Bayan rashin nasarar Jamusawa a yankin duniya na farko, Beljiyom ta mamaye ƙasar Ruwanda. Matakin da Beljiyom ta ɗauka a Ruwanda irin tsari ne na raba kawonan al'umar ƙasa domin mulkarsu kamar dai yadda lngila ta gudanar a ƙasashe da dama. Beljiyom ta yi amfani da irin tsarin mulkin mallakar da aka gudanar a sauran ƙasashe da dama ta hanyar goyawa marasa rinjaye baya. Akan wannan tsarin Beljiyom ta ƙaddamar da wasu tsarukan da zasu ƙalubalanci Hutu masu rinjaye a ƙasar da Jamus ta yi amfani dasu, Beljiyom ta ƙaddamar da tsarukan ƙalubalantar Hutu be ta hanyar goyawa marasa rinjaye watau Tutsi a ƙasar, waɗanda suka sanya a zukatansu tunanin sunfi Hutu daraja. Ta haka ne suka raba kawonan Hutu da Tutsi waɗanda suka kwashe shekaru aru-aru suna zaune da juna lafiya lau sunka fara cikin fitina da juna.

A sanadiyar wannan tsarin na raba kawonan al'uma domin mulkarsu da Beljiyom ta tsara ya bata damar sanya marasa rinjaye Tutsi mulkar ƙasar ta hanyar tsanantawa har izuwa lokacin da Ruwanda ta samu ƴancin kai. A shekarar 1961 lokacin da Ruwanda ta samu ƴancin kai mulki ya faɗa hannun Hutu masu rinjaye. Beljiyom ta fara goyon bayan Hutu ne a shekarar 1950,  daga wannan lokacin ne Hutu suka fara yi wa Tutsi ire-iren takurawa da uƙubar da aka ayyanar akansu a baya.

 

Kisan gillar mutane miliyan ɗaya a shekarar 1994..

Rigima da fitinu sun ci gaba tsakanin Hutu masu rinjaye da Tutsi marasa rinjaye har izuwa shekarar 1994. A shekarar 1994 ne shugaban ƙasar Hutu Habyarimana ya zauna teburin sulhu da Tutsi inda aka ayyanar da yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya. A yarjejeniyar an aminta da Tutsi zasu samu dama a gwamnatin kasar da kuma bayyana ra'ayoyinsu, amma sai aka kashe Habyarimana ta hanyar harbo jirginsa.

Sabili da zargin Tutsi da aka yi da laifin kashe shugaban ƙasar ya sanya Hutu ɗaukar mummunan matakin kisan gillar Tutsi. A cikin kwanaki ɗari an kashe Tutsi miliyan daya da kuma Hutu da dama. Hakan na nuni da an kashe mutane dubu goma a ko wacce rana. Wannan kisan kiyashin da ya samu goyon bayan jami'an tsaro ya baiwa Hutu masu tsattsaurar ra'ayi damar kone, kisan mutane da yiwa mata fyaɗe. Katin shaida ɗan ƙasar da Beljiyom ta ƙirƙira ya bada damar gane ƴan Tutsi da kuma kashe su cikin sauƙi. Kisan kiyashin ya zo ƙarshe ne lokacin da kungiyar da Tutsi suka kafa mai suna Ruwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) suka shiga babban birnin ƙasar.

 

Janye sojojinta da MDD ta yi.

 

A lokacin da kisan kiyashin ya fara akwai sojojin MDD har guda 2500 a ƙasar dake gudanar da ayyukan samar da lumana. A yayinda lamarin ya yi ƙamari rundunar MDD ce kawai madogarar Tutsi. Sai dai matakan da MDD ta dauka a wannan lokaci baida banbanci da wanda ta ɗauka a lokacin kisan gilla a Bosnia da Srebrenica. Dangane da matakin da Majalisar Tsaron MDD ta ɗauka ta rage sojojinta daga 2500 zuwa 250 a Ruwanda. Kamar dai yadda kwamandan MDD ɗan ƙasar Holand Thomas Karremans ya miƙa wa Sirpa mutane dubu 25 dake mafaka a ƙarƙashin sa da birninsu.

 

Rawar da Faransa ta taka...

Shugaban ƙasar Ruwanda Kagame ya zargi ƴan siyasar ƙasashen Beljiyom da Faransa da laifin haddasa kisan kiyashin. Waɗanda suka raunana daga bala'in sun gurfanar da hukumomin wadannan kasashen a Faransa da Beljiyom a gaban kotu.

Cocin katolika dake ƙasar Ruwanda ta nemi gafarar al'umar Ruwanda sanadiyar rawar da ta taka a lokacin masifar.

Kwamitin yaƙi da kisan kare dangi a ƙasar Ruwanda a shekarar 2016 ta bayyana sunayen wadanda keda hannu a haddasa masifar daga cikin su harda shugaban hafsan sojojin Faransa Janar Jacques Lanxade da wasu kaptin ƴan Faransa 22. An zargi Faransa Da horar da wadanda suka ayyanar da kisan kiyashin da kuma basu gudunmowar makamai.

 

A ranar 23 ga watan Yunin shekarar 1994 ne Faransa ta kaddamar da farmaki a kudu maso yammacin kasar da zummar kare ƴan gudun hijirar dake yankin. Amma a maimakon kare da dakatar da kisan kiyashin sai suka dinga baiwa masu ayyanar da haka gudunmowar makamai lamarin da ya rage karfin gwiwar kungiyar  RPF.  Jaridar Faransa mai suna Saint-Exupery, ta rawaito cewa shugaban kasar Faransa na wannan lokacin François Mitterrand da babban sakataren ƙasar Hubert Vedrine be suka bayar da umurnin taimakawa Hutu da makamai.

Hirar da tsohon shugaban ƙasar Faransa François Mitterrand ya yi da jaridar Ke Figaro a shekarar 1998 abin tsoro ne. Duk da dai kasance cewar afkuwar kisan gilla a ƙasar bai zama wani abin damuwa ga wasu, sakamakon suka da korafe-ƙorafen kungiyoyin kasa da kasa ya sanya shugaban ƙasar Faransa Emmanuel Macron a watan Afrilu 2019 ɗaukar matakin kafa kwamiti akan kisan kare dangin da aka gudanar a Ruwanda bayan shekaru 25. Sai dai an soki wannan matakin kasancewar ba'a sanya waɗanda basa da wata ra'ayi ba a cikin kwamitin, an dai sanya sunayen wadanda Faransa taga dama ne kacal.

 

Kisan kiyashin Ruwanda da ake zargin Faransa da Beljiyom da aikatawa lamari ne da ya afku shekaru 25 da suka gabata. Kashe musulmi 50 a ranar juma'a da Breton Tarrant ya yi lamari ne da ya afku a cikin watan jiya. Wannan bakar aniyar ta Tarrantizm da ta bayyana daga ra'ayin nuna fifikon farar fata ba mamaki zai kawo karshen ra'ayin Nazi. Muna dai fatan wannan baƙin ɗabiar ya kasance na ƙarshe, amma ala kulli halin, bukata da manufofin jari hujja har ila yau suna ci gaba da gudana a cikin mu.

A dukkanin ra'ayoyin biyu, abin da muke tunawa shi ne. A zamanin yau amfi kasancewa cikin yanayin zubar da jini fiye da zamanin da. Haka kuma mu , a matsayin na ƴan adam muna ƙara raggontuwa da kasancewa cikin rashin tsarin iya ƙalubalantar baƙaƙen ɗabi'u da manufofin dake fitowa daga kasashen yamma.

 

 

Wannan sharhin ferfesa Kudret BÜLBÜL ne shugaban tsangayar ilimin siyasa dake jami'ar Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt

                                                                

 



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