TRT - RADIO
Radio broadcasts in Turkey started at the same time as others around the
world. The first test radios could be heard around the beginning of the 1920s.
Turkey, which emerged victorious from the War of Independences, launched an
intense effort to reach the level of contemporary civilization in the area of
mass media as it did in all sectors.
First official broadcast and TTTAŞ Era
First serious work in the field commenced in 1925. A law was drafted to set
up a big broadcasting station in Ankara along with a broadcast network around
the country. Necessary additions were made to the broadcast stations set up in
Ankara and Istanbul for purposes of communication; and they were transformed
into use for radio broadcasts. These stations, with the power of five kW each,
were among the most powerful in Europe. The Turkish Wireless Telephone Company,
which was established to run these radios, brought to life the first radio
studios in Istanbul and Ankara.
The first official radio broadcast was aired
on 6 May 1927 at the top floor of the Grand Post Office in Sirkeci, Istanbul,
which was transformed into a studio. The Istanbul and Ankara radios reached out
to Turkish listeners, to a population of 13 million according to the first
census carried out in 1927, with 2000 receivers.
State Radio Period
1936 marked the beginning of a new era in the history of Turkish radio
broadcasts. The administration of the radios was transferred from the Turkish
Wireless Telephone Company to the PTT due to the effects on the Company of the
economic crisis that shook the world. This was followed by a transfer to the
Public Media Directorate on 22 May 1940, and the transformation of the Public
Media Directorate into the General Directorate for Tourism on 26 July 1943. This
marked the start of the “state radio period” that would last until the
establishment of the Turkish Radio and Television (TRT).
witnessed social and political events that were significant for world history
and Turkey: the Second World War, the establishment of the UN and NATO, the
Korean War and the first political change in Turkey in the wake of the
establishment of the Republic.
Radio broadcasting crossed a milestone while
all this was taking place: radio receivers with transistors were produced and
rapidly became widespread around the world.
In the meantime, the Istanbul
Radio, which had put broadcasts on hold in 1938, was on air again in 1949, and
the first radio was set up in Izmir by the Municipality. Adana, Antalya,
Gaziantep, Kars and Van provincial radios were set up alongside those in
Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir in 1961. Turkish radio channels were temporarily
linked to the Tourism and Information Ministry in 1963.
The TRT is established…
It became necessary for Turkish radio broadcasts to comply
with social developments during the 1960s. There was a pressing need for a
broadcasting agency that would function independently of governing units and
departments, autonomous with its own budget and cadres, and which would gather
all radios in Turkey under a single umbrella, and would start TV transmission as
well. TRT filled the gap. The Turkish Radio & Television Corporation was
established on 1 May 1964 with the article 359. Thus, a new period started in
Turkey in the field of radio and television communications.
of technical infrastructure, restructuring of radio posts, establishment of
regional radios and centralizing the planning of programs made the following
years golden times for radio broadcasts in Turkey.
24 Hour Broadcasts
The TRT-1 Post was set up on 9 September 1974 and 24 hour
non-stop joint-broadcasts took off with the participation of Ankara, Istanbul,
Izmir, Erzurum, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Çukurova radios. Only four months later,
on 1 January 1975, the TRT-2 and TRT-3 channels started joint-broadcasts. The
Radio Directorate was set up with a restructuring in 1980.
The names of the
other three radios were changed to RADIO 1, RADIO 2 and RADIO 3 following the
establishment of RADIO 4 on 18 October 1987. These radios served for education,
culture, western music and Turkish music respectively. TRT 3 started
broadcasting on the FM band on 14 April 1978, and steps were taken towards
stereo broadcasts on TRT radios on 1 October 1984. In the wake of the foundation
of private radio channels after 1990, the TRT took yet a further step and set up
the national radio channel called TRT FM (RADIO 4) to broadcast popular
“western” music on 12 May 1993. RADIO 2, which had started broadcasting with the
name RADIO NEWS on 13 September 1993, was dissolved on 1 November 1997.
TRT FM (RADIO 2) is born
The name TRT FM (RADIO 4) was changed to TRT FM (RADIO 2)
with a board decision on 30 December 1997. This came to life on 1 January 1998.
RADIO 4 started its broadcasts through Turkish music on 3 January 2000.
parallel to “restructuring” efforts commenced in the institution in 1998, a
redesigning of “the corporate identity” took place within the TRT radios in
2001. Thus, production and broadcast arrangements were made to emphasize
education, culture and news on RADIO 1, popular music on RADIO 2 (TRT FM),
western music on RADIO 3 and Turkish music on RADIO 4.
Regional broadcasts get stronger
The plan as of 29 January 2001 was to completely change the broadcasting
format of the daytime broadcasts encompassing 07.30-19.00 on RADIO 1 to air all
verbal programs. Regional radios started going on air all live programs
depending on the needs and characteristics of their listeners between
06.00-18.00. These radios were linked to the RADIO 4 joint broadcast between
While RADIO 1,2 (TRT FM), 3 and 4 are national posts that
reach all corners of the country with both their amplitude and frequency
modulated receivers, the Antalya, Çukurova, GAP-Diyarbakır, Erzurum and Trabzon
radios air regional broadcasts in compliance with the likes and demands of
listeners in their own regions.
TRT radios, which broadcast within the
country, make their voice heard to Turkish citizens all around the world thanks
to programs transmitted over satellites and the Internet. They strive to be the
eyes, ears and voice of the country with four national and five regional radio
stations, experienced cadres, choruses, children’s’ and youth clubs, rich
archives, computer-supported broadcasts, studio equipment, receiver power and
broadcasts that live up to contemporary broadcasting norms.
TRT Radios Indisputable Leader in National and Regional Broadcasts!
According to results of the “Turkish Radio Broadcasts Poll” that was caried
out by the TRT and universities in 2008, RADIO 2 (TRT FM) has the most listeners
in Turkey. RADIO 1 is among the first five radios with most listeners.
TRT Turkish radios make their voice heard around the country today with five
regional channels. The Antalya, Çukurova, Erzurum, GAP Diyarbakır and Trabzon
regional radios air music dominated broadcasts and regional news that draw the
interest of listeners in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural
characteristics and needs of their broadcasting regions.
Antalya Regional Radio
It became a provincial radio with 2 kW on 27 June 1962 and a regional radio
with a 100 kW receiver on 7 May 1967. It was linked to the RADIO 1 national
network on 1 January 1975. Regional broadcasts started as of 1 January 1993.
It’s been completely regional and live between 06.00-18.00 since 29 January 2001
and in joint broadcast with RADIO 4 between 18.00-06.00.
According to the
December 2004 opinion poll results on the Antalya Regional Radio, the channel
ranks fourth among radios with most listeners in the region, with 13.5 %.
Çukurova Regional Radio
It became the Adana provincial radio with 2 kW in April
1962, and continued broadcasting as Çukurova regional radio from Mersin. It was
linked to the RADIO 1 national network on 1 January 1975. Regional broadcasts
started as of 1 January 1993. It has been completely regional and live between
06.00-18.00 since 29 January 2001 and in joint broadcast with RADIO 4 between
According to the October 2006 opinion poll results on the
Çukurova Regional Radio, the channel is listened to by 4.44 %.
Erzurum Regional Radio
It became a provincial radio with 1 kW on 15 December 1960 and a regional
radio with a 100 kW receiver on 7 May 1967. It was linked to the RADIO 1
national network on 1 January 1975. Regional broadcasts started as of 1 January
1990. It has been completely regional and live between 06.00-18.00 since 29
January 2001 and in joint broadcast with RADIO 4 between 18.00-06.00.
According to the December 2004 opinion poll results on the Erzurum Regional
Radio, the channel ranked third among 51 regional radios, with 8.5%.
GAP Diyarbakır Radio
It became a provincial radio with 2 kW in 1964 and a regional radio with a
300 kW receiver on 8 November 1968. It was linked to the RADIO 1 national
network on 1 January 1975. Regional broadcasts started as of 2 October 1989. The
GAP radio came into life on 15 April 1991. It’s been broadcasting with the name
GAP-Diyarbakır radio since 1 January 1997. It has been completely regional and
live between 06.00-18.00 since 29 January 2001 and in joint broadcast with RADIO
4 between 18.00-06.00.
According to the March 2005 opinion poll carried out
in Diyarbakır, Şanlıurfa, Elazığ, Malatya, Mardin, Gaziantep and counties linked
to these cities, the channel is listened to by 13.14 %.
Trabzon Regional Radio
It became a provincial radio with 2 kW on 1 December 1968 and a regional
radio with a 300 kW receiver on 1 December 1978. Regional broadcasts started on
6 January 1992. It was linked to the RADIO 1 national network on 29 January
2001. It has been completely regional and live between 06.00-18.00 since 29
January 2001; and in joint-broadcast with RADIO 4 between 18.00-06.00.
According to the May 2005 opinion poll carried out by the Karadeniz
Technical University and the TRT, the channel is listened to by 13 %.
Further information on TRT Radio can be found at: (